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Old 11-07-2002, 08:10 PM   #1
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Overclocking FAQ

Overclocking
Last updated: 14/11/2003
(Over 27k views since 07/02)

Printable Version (for best results, print in grayscale)

Preamble:
The purpose of this FAQ is to educate in the basics of overclocking. Please remember that manufacturers are constantly changing their products, so overclocking methods also must change. Because of this it wouldn't be advisable to start putting wiretricks, pencil tricks etc within a static document like this, as it quickly becomes outdated. Instead this FAQ will be updated with links to relevant external articles.

This FAQ aims to give overclocking newbies a solid background in overclocking theory and history before they even open their case.

This FAQ assumes you have a basic knowledge of using a computer, and maybe a basic knowledge of hardware. This FAQ assumes you are using i386 compatible hardware, however it teaches broadly enough for users of other hardware platforms to get a basic idea.

Important sections of this FAQ are coloured to clearly seperate them from the rest of the FAQ, as follows:

Disclaimer:
Overclockers New Zealand, the author of this FAQ, and everybody else on this planet do not take any responsibility for any damage caused by you in the course of overclocking. Overclockers New Zealand does not guarantee authenticity of the information provided in this FAQ. The FAQ author agrees that all information within this FAQ is provided on a "to the best of my knowledge" basis.

Readers of this FAQ accept that this document is for educational purposes only, and that further research is a requirement before overclocking is to be attempted. Readers of this FAQ also agree that no responsibility will be held by Overclockers New Zealand or the FAQ author. Readers of this FAQ accept complete and full responsibility for their mistakes.


Introduction:

"What is this Overclocking thing?"
Overclocking is the art and hobby of running your personal computer faster than its manufactured specification. Normally this directly applies to your CPU (central processing unit), your RAM/Memory, and your video card. But it can indirectly apply to other components of your computer such as your soundcard or network card. Overclocking is half effort and half luck.

"What can be overclocked?"
Virtually everything Even Jesus and your brain

"Who would do such a thing?"
Originally overclocking was performed by the hardcore few geeks and nerds. Nowadays overclocking is so commercially widespread that it is in danger of losing its voodoo appeal.

Overclockers are now split into groups - the old-schoolers, the commercial slaves, the kiddies and the newbies. This article reckons that overclockers are split into two major groups: Hobbyists and pragmatists. The point is that overclocking is now widespread enough for definable subgroups to form.

To understand really who benefits from overclocking, you must understand the why:

"Ok, why would you do such a thing?"
Why do Indy500 drivers waste fossil fuels racing 500 miles in a circle? The same answer to many of mankind's weird and illogical pastimes applies to overclocking: "Because you can"

The underlying basis of overclocking is to get free performance. This is especially important to the PC Gamer demographic, where many overclockers come from, where every frame per second counts. As your average PC Gamer is in his/her teenage years, finances can be a limitation. The solution? Buy cheaper gear and overclock it.

Of course this isn't the only reason to overclock. Some people overclock not for performance, but because they believe they deserve the right to get the best out of what they paid for. Others overclock just to see what they can squeeze out of their components. Some overclock competitively, either with others or with past personal records.

"When is it appropriate to overclock?"
The evangilistic few would tell you "anything and everything you get your hands on should be overclocked!!!" In all actuality it would not be appropriate to overclock anything that isn't yours without permission. So please don't practice on your machine at work, because you might upset a few people.

"Should I overclock?"
Well, this is up to you. What do you primarily use your computer for? At the end of the day if you just use your rig for internet browsing, email and instant messaging, then you're really wasting your time because you probably won't notice much difference, unless of course you want to use overclocking as an activity to learn about what makes things tick inside your case. If you play games or any multimedia that requires a bit more grunt, or if you do encoding or constant processing, then overclocking is for you!

"Are there any dangers to overclocking?"
Everything in life has a risk attached to it, and overclocking is no different.

When you overclock your CPU, you will decrease its lifespan. Be aware though that the lifespan decrease will probably not affect you, as by the time the CPU does finally die, you will have long been on an upgraded PC (or several!).

Overclocked CPU's also have increased heat output, and therefore increased cooling requirements. The biggest danger with overclocking is component death. There are smaller dangers such as data corruption. But by taking care with your overclocking methods you can easily avoid any complications.

"x company says that overclocking will void my warranty, is this true?"
Yes. Overclocking will void your warranty. However overclockers are usually very sly and clever in this department. We overclock in the least physical way possible. Don't make physical changes to the components unless it is absolutely necessary to do so, and you accept that your warranty is gone. Most overclockers are working with gear that is out of warranty anyway.

Which warranties are voided depend on the components you have. Some motherboard manufacturers do release motherboards intended for overclocking, so you probably wont have warranty issues with those, however other components might not be as forgiving.

If you overclock without for example painting bridges on your CPU, then you can get a replacement (because to the retailer it looks just how it left the store). If however you do paint bridges on your CPU, then you have no way of proving to your retailer that you weren't overclocking and your RMA request may be denied.

Be aware and accept that if you overclock and kill your rig, you may be refused an RMA. The trick is mastering the innocent "I was sending my grandma an email and smoke started coming out of the side of my hard drive email interweb machine" face. Whether or not you feel guilty or unethical about tricking your retailer/dealer in such a manner is up to you.

"My friend/workmate/relative/whatever got x overclock, can I do the same?"
Now, I'd like to clear one common misconception straight off the bat: No two components are EVER the same. Do not assume for one second that because your friend can run his PentiumIII 450 at 600MHz, that you can do the same. A suitable analogy is the human face. No two human faces are ever the same, however some may come out very similar, either by nature (identical twins) or by synthetic methods (plastic surgery).

If you were to build two computers, side by side, using exactly the same branded components in each, I could almost put a wager that one would overclock better than the other.

Try to avoid thinking along the lines of "I read that x person got y overclock out of his z processor, so I can do the same!!!" because chances are, you can't. While you are a beginner, I cannot stress enough that you must overclock gradually, try not to do large steps at a time.

Don't forget that with overclocking, nothing is guaranteed. Ever. You should not come to expect particular results, instead you should be quietly grateful for what you do get.
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Old 11-07-2002, 10:54 PM   #2
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CPU's
These are generally referred to as CPU's, Central Processing Units, Processors, Processing Units etc
First you must understand that all of the above are exactly the same component. Secondly, you must realise that the CPU is inside the case, and is not the case. (Look at your computer where the cdrom and floppy drive are, that box is commonly called a "case". It is a common misconception to refer to the case as the CPU, so we'll clear that up before we move on ) Also, your case is NOT the hard drive. The hard drive is a component within your computer that is about the size of a third of a brick. Now that we have that cleared up, let's move on.

You will have no doubt come across some common CPU names in your travels, from silicon companies such as Intel (Pentium, Celeron, Xeon as examples) and AMD (K6 series, Athlon, Duron as examples) but there are other companies such as Motorola, Transmeta, Via and ARM which we wont worry about at this time.

Further to the name of the CPU, you may also have come across numbers or labelling that goes with the CPU name. As an example: "Intel PentiumIII 450MHz"
The number "450" indicates the speed in MegaHertz(MHz) that the CPU is running at.
MegaHertz means "millions of clock cycles per second" and is also referred to as "clock speed". Keeping with our PentiumIII example, the cpu is running at 450 million clock cycles per second. Pretty impressive huh?

"I don't know what CPU I have... How can I find out?"
Download wcpuid and run it. It will tell you all the information you need to know. It looks something like this:


The Formula for Determining CPU Speed
So now we move on to the formula. The formula is the beginning and the end. The formula is your best friend. The formula essentially goes like this:

MHz(CPU) = MHz(FSB) * xx.x(Multiplier)

Or in words, The speed of the CPU in MHz is equal to the speed of the FSB in MHz multiplied by the CPU Multiplier

But what does all this mean? Let me break it down for you.
  • *CPU speed, clock speed, MHz - this tells you how fast the CPU is running.
    *FSB (also known as Front Side Bus or Bus Speed) - This refers to the small conductive traces that allow the transmission of data between the CPU and other components such as RAM.
    *Multiplier (also known as mult) - multiplies your FSB speed so your cpu runs at its own speed. Only ever ends in a .0 or .5 eg. 3.0, 3.5, 4.0

So, going back to our PentiumIII 450 example:

450MHz(CPU) = 100MHz(FSB) * 4.5(multiplier)

"You speak of "MHz", what does "GHz" mean then?"
First you must understand that MHz and GHz are all just extreme measures of Hertz or Hz.
Dictionary.com specifies Hz as:
"A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second"

M and G are SD Prefixes, meaning Mega and Giga. SD Prefixes are right throughout society, as they govern standards for the Metric System. The most well known SD Prefix is k or "kilo". Other prefixes are nano, pico, micro, centi, tera, and so on.

What does all this mean? Well I believe you learn something everyday, so why not learn what they actually mean?

So, a Hz is 1Hz, 1000Hz is 1kHz, 1000kHz is 1MHz, 1000MHz is dum dum da da 1GHz.

So, long story short, 1GHz is equal to a measure of 1000MHz.
For the sake of this article/FAQ, we'll keep it simple and stick to basic MHz examples.

"Ok, great, so how do I overclock my CPU?"
No doubt this question is the reason you are reading this. There are two main methods of overclocking a CPU, as there are two variables that determine the CPU clock speed; The FSB and the Multiplier.

* The easiest method to overclock is to raise the multiplier:

100MHz(FSB) * 4.5(mult) = 450MHz(CPU) right?

Okay, let's try that with a 5.0 mult:

100MHz(FSB) * 5.0(mult) = 500MHz(CPU)

Simple right?

* The other method of overclocking is to raise the FSB:

So, let's go back to the calculation:

100MHz(FSB) * 4.5(mult) = 450MHz(CPU) right?

Okay, let's try that with a 133MHz FSB

133MHz(FSB) * 4.5(mult) = 598.5MHz(CPU)

Great! A faster FSB and a faster CPU. Could it be more simple? In some cases it is that simple, in other cases it's still a bit more complex than that . Read on.


"Which is better - Multiplier or FSB overclocking?"
To answer this question you really must have an understanding about buses on a motherboard.

The FSB is a bus (electrical traces) between the CPU and RAM that allows data transfer from RAM to CPU and back. (Speaking in basic terms of course, you'll learn more about bus specifics later.)

Imagine your CPU is a tap, and the FSB is a straw. Water represents data. You're not going to get much data through the straw. If you overclock your FSB it's like swapping the straw for a garden hose. If you just multiplier overclock, that's like turning the tap on further, you've still got that pitiful straw defeating the whole purpose. So FSB overclocking is the way to go, because it decreases the FSB bottleneck and offers the CPU more bandwidth with which to throw data around.

"Are there any disadvantages to either method?"
FSB overclocking can affect other components, but you'll learn about that later.

"I have an Intel CPU, are there any problems overclocking one?"
Yes, there is one major problem with overclocking Intel CPU's.
In the early days of the PentiumI, some shady characters discovered that the PentiumI core was highly scalable (it could overclock far, sometimes a 100% overclock - a doubling of speed from its stock value). They purchased/stole slower PentiumI's, rebadged them and sold them for a tremendous profit. This black/greymarket activity compelled Intel to lock their multipliers. The multiplier on a modern Intel CPU cannot be adjusted, leaving Intel owners with only FSB Overclocking.

"My CPU is an AMD.. is that bad?"
No, quite the contrary. Intel has been reknowned for being almost a monopoly on the PC CPU market, while AMD has been the underdog for years. Dogged with poor performance, and severe blows from Intel propoganda, AMD never really came into its own until the release of its K7 core, in the original slot-A Athlon.

Since then, AMD has been synonymous with the terms "bang for the buck" "overclockers favourite" "gamers choice" etc.. But are they worthy of such praise? It's up to you to decide.

"Ok... I think I'm with you, are AMD cpu's locked like Intel's ones?"
Yes and No. Some are factory unlocked, so you purchase them unlocked and ready to go. Many are factory locked, but AMD's locking methods are easily circumvented.

I recommend the following reading to learn how to unlock your AMD CPU:
"But my AMD CPU isnt an Athlon! It's a 'Duron'"
That's ok, Durons are basically Athlons with less cache (for more on cache, I recommend this article), so Durons are unlocked exactly like it's big brother Athlon is

"But my AMD CPU is neither Athlon or Duron??? It's a K6-something"
That's ok, the K6 series of AMD CPU's arent multiplier locked, so you can change the multiplier to your hearts' content. Be warned however, K6 series chips arent reputed for great overclocking.

"Okay, so how do I overclock my AMD chip? Is it any different to overclocking an Intel chip?"
It's essentially the same, except that both multiplier overclocking AND FSB overclocking apply. You can drop or raise your multiplier, and drop or raise your FSB. This allows you a greater degree of flexibility to balance high bus speeds with high CPU speeds for best performance. It takes a lot of time, but finally you will be triumphant in getting every little bit out of your chip. It's a satisfying feeling after all the hard work
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Old 11-07-2002, 10:55 PM   #3
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"Okay, you've explained to me about Intel, AMD, mult overclocking and fsb overclocking.. what I wanted to know was HOW do I overclock MY CPU???"
Well, now that we know about basic overclocking; multiplier overclocking and FSB overclocking, we can get down to the hands on side of things.

Jumpers/Switches
You will usually find in your motherboard manual (most of the time you can get a pdf version from your motherboard manufacturer) that the jumper/dipswitch settings are listed. The manufacturer will detail the most common settings, and will make very certain to imply that overclocking is the root of all evil, will void your warranty, and will result in lessened performance. So look in your manual and see what you've got there. Most usually nowadays, jumper/dipswitch settings arent used, with motherboard manufacturers preferring instead to keep the options in the BIOS.

Personally I prefer jumper/dipswitch overclocking as it's all hardset whereas a BIOS overclock is softset. This was especially an issue on KT133A motherboards where your chosen multiplier would sometimes be bypassed back to default giving undesirable results.


Typical dipswitches and jumpers

Here is an example of jumper settings found in an old Asus manual of mine:



BIOS

Overclocking Methods:
There are many methods to overclocking, just like there is more than one way to skin a cat. Here's a proven by-the-book method:
  • 1)Plan/Research
    2)Drop Multiplier
    3)Increase FSB and Bench
    4)Repeat 3 until instability is found, back off to last successful FSB speed
    5)Increase Multiplier and Bench
    6)Repeat 5 until instability is found
    7)Increase Voltage and Bench
    8a)Repeat 7 until stability is found
    8b)If unsuccessful, drop Mult and/or FSB until stability is found
    8c)If successful, increase Multiplier

This method works on the basis of working your components UP to their maximum comfortable operation. Another method used more commonly by experienced overclockers often does the reverse - you push to an expected speed and then move up and down as required. For simplicities sake we'll call the previously stated method the "Work-up" method, and the following stated method as the "Drop-back" method.

The Drop-back method:
  • 1)Plan/Research
    2)Overclock to highest expected speed
    3a)If unsuccessful, drop back
    3b)If successful, increase


In More Detail: The "Work-up" method:

1)Plan/Research
The first step to overclocking is to plan out your overclock. You should first search the internet to find forums, reviews, articles and databases that will build up a pattern of what kind of overclock to expect from your components.

You should spend the time familiarising yourself with your components, and you should understand their operation as best as possible, by reading the manuals and researching on the internet.


For this example we'll use a 1GHz AMD Athlon-B AXIA (10x mult * 100MHz FSB) that has an average overclock of 1.4GHz. We would plan to have as high a FSB as possible, and assuming the AXIA is installed in a motherboard of the same era, we can assume that ultimately we'll come out to 10x mult * 140MHz FSB.

2)Drop Multiplier
The next step is to drop the CPU's multiplier. You may or may not have to unlock your multiplier previous to this step. We'll drop to something safe like 7x and reboot. Our example CPU should now POST as a 700MHz Athlon (7x mult * 100MHz FSB).

3)Increase FSB and Bench
Following the multiplier drop, you will want to find the maximum ceiling of your FSB. You should know at this point what your maximum divider points are, and assuming a same-era motherboard there will no-doubt be a divider for the 133MHz FSB step.

So in this case you can automatically increase to 133MHz and reboot. Our example CPU should now POST at 931MHz (7x * 133MHz).

Now continue to increase in increments of about 5MHz at a time. Start by rounding to 135MHz and reboot. Boot into windows and stress bench for about an hour. Increase your FSB another 5MHz to 140MHz and stress bench again. Continue to do so until your stress benching displays instability.

4)Repeat 3 until instability is found, back off to last successful FSB speed (rounded to the nearest 5 or 0)
Let's assume you get to 145MHz FSB before you experience instability. Decrease your FSB to the last successful step (in this case 140MHz) and our example CPU is now posting at 980MHz (7x * 140MHz)

Because you won't realistically notice much difference outside of a 5MHz change, it pays to simply stick with rounded FSB figures.

5)Increase Multiplier and Bench
Now that we have found the ceiling of our FSB, we can increase the multiplier in .5 steps to find the CPU's overall ceiling. Increasing your multiplier now to 7.5 will yield a CPU speed of 1050MHz (7.5x * 140MHz). Boot into Windows and stress bench for instability.

6)Repeat 5 until instability is found
Keep on repeating step 5 through the differing multiplier levels:
8.0x * 140 = 1120MHz
8.5x * 140 = 1190MHz
9.0x * 140 = 1260MHz
9.5x * 140 = 1330MHz
10.0x * 140 = 1400MHz
10.5x * 140 = 1470MHz
11.0x * 140 = 1540MHz

and so on...

Let's assume you reach instability at 10x, so you back it off to 9.5x (1330MHz). Not too bad so far - you've increased your FSB by 40MHz and your overall CPU speed by 330MHz.

7)Increase Voltage and Bench
Increase your voltage by 0.25v and stress test.

8a)Repeat 7 until stability is found
If an increase of 0.25v was unsuccessful, increase a further 0.25v and stress test. Keep increasing until stability is found.

8b)If unsuccessful, drop Mult and/or FSB until stability is found
If you reach the voltage limit of your motherboard, back off your voltage to stock and drop your Mult by .5x Ask for help/ideas in the General Help/Troubleshooting forum.

8c)If successful, increase Multiplier
If you do get a stable stress test result, then you can continue to increase your multiplier (eg go to step 5)


In More Detail: The "Drop-back" method:

1)Plan/Research
2)Overclock to highest expected speed
3a)If unsuccessful, drop back
3b)If successful, increase


"Why should I stressbench?"
Let's say you managed to get your 1GHz AXIA Athlon to 1.5GHz. Great right? But what if it crashes randomly, games drop to desktop and sometimes windows doesnt boot? Is it so great then?

If you're involved in distributed computing such as Seti@home, do you want to risk sending back poorly calculated results? Results that tarnish the overall outcome of the project? Just so that you can have a higher work unit count than joe bloggs down the road? Whatever happened to quality not quantity?

Overclocking is about getting performance, it is about facing the challenge of getting the most out of your computer, BUT stability, reliability and accuracy should not be compromised.

"How do I stressbench?"
The simplest way to stressbench is with an application that places a high computational load onto your equipment.

CPU:
Sisoft Sandra (use the CPU burn-in module)
CPUBurn
Hot CPU Tester
Prime95

RAM:
Sisoft Sandra (use the memory benchmark module)
Memtest86

Video Card:
Futuremark (obtain and use the 3dmark benchmark application)

Bench for 2-3 hours minimum on CPU and RAM, and several passes of a benchmark program for your Video Card. If you wish to, you can stress for longer. Leaving it stressbenching overnight is preferable. Read this article for more.

"What about voltage? Isn't a higher voltage bad?"
Typically, the lower the voltage, the colder your cpu will run. What you will want to do when overclocking is to try at default voltage and test for stability. To test for stability run some strenuous benchmarking software such as 3dmark, prime95 or sisoft sandra's burn-in. If your computer stays up for an extended period of time (your discretion - several hours to several days.. however long you want to strain it) then you can consider your overclock stable. If however your system locks up or reboots, you might want to try increasing your voltage by one step until it is stable. Make sure to keep an eye on your temperatures.

CPU's are very forgiving when it comes to overvolting, so don't worry too much about giving it too much. Typically they can take more than what your motherboard can provide by default! Your primary concern as far as voltage is concerned is the cooling.
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Old 11-07-2002, 10:57 PM   #4
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"And Power Supplies? What about them?"
A Power Supply (or "PSU") can definately make a difference. In modern times a 250w PSU is a minimal figure to have. The higher the wattage, the better. But be wary. Most PSU manufacturers exaggerate excessively about the wattage rating of their PSU's.

When choosing a PSU look for one that has a reputable brandname (enermax, fortran, sparkle, truepower, antec, zalman) and look for a heavier PSU. If you are buying in a shop, pick the PSU up and judge its weight. A heavier PSU is a general indication of more, and higher quality, internal components.

Look for a strong 5v rail. the 12v rail only powers fans and motors, so it can vary a bit with no great hassle, but the 5v rail powers more important things such as chipsets etc so it is imperitive that you have a solid 5v rail.

"I put my FSB up to x speed and now my computer wont boot! What can I do?"
Firstly, you must be on another computer to read this You will have to clear your CMOS. To do this, you will need your motherboard manual handy, or have good eyesight. If you look at your motherboard carefully, there will be a battery that looks similar to a watch battery. Close to that you normally will see a solitary jumper. What you do with this is dependant on your mobo manufacturer, but with your computer off, you have to short the "CMOS clear" jumpers.

Another common form of CMOS clearing is not by way of jumpers, but you will have to use a screwdriver or a knife to short two small blobs of solder on your mobo. This is/was a commodity on ASUS motherboards.


The CLRTC1 solder blobs found on many ASUS motherboards

"Well why didnt it boot?"
The problem was most likely your PCI and/or AGP buses running out of specification due to low dividers.

"What are dividers? Do I need them?"
Yes, you need dividers, they are part of the operation of your mobo. Dividers determine the speed at which your PCI and AGP buses run. The bus to keep watch of is the PCI bus, as PCI cards tend to be a bit more sensitive than AGP cards.
note: standard speed for PCI is 33MHz and agp is 66MHz

How dividers determine the PCI bus speed is as follows:
MHz(FSB) / x (Divider) = MHz(PCI)

So for example
100MHz(FSB)/3 (1/3 Divider) = 33.333MHz(PCI)

Now, if we overclock our fsb to say, 120, let's see how it comes out:
120MHz(FSB)/3 (1/3 Divider) = 40MHz(PCI)

"But what about 133MHz FSB? You used 133MHz FSB earlier!"
As technology improves, the FSB speeds are increasingly becoming faster. With the 133MHz FSB becoming standard, the 1/4 Divider was introduced. So for example:
133MHz(FSB)/4 (1/4 Divider) = 33.25MHz(PCI)

Nowadays, the 1/5 Divider has been introduced, allowing FSB speeds of 166MHz:
166MHz(FSB)/5 (1/5 Divider) = 33.2MHz(PCI)

OLDER MOTHERBOARDS WILL NOT HAVE THE 1/4 AND 1/5 DIVIDERS

On some motherboards you can manually set the available dividers, and on other motherboards, the dividers kick in automatically. You will get a performance increase with a higher PCI bus speed.

So, as you up your FSB, just remember that you are also overclocking your PCI and AGP buses. Traditional systems have their IDE controllers piggybacking the PCI bus, so you could be overclocking your hard drive and cdrom as well.

Devices are manufactured to run to specifications. Overclocking takes them out of specifications, so there is no guarantee as to their operation when run out of spec. A good PCI speed to stay under or around is 40MHz. Any higher and you start to get into the domain of damaging your components.

"Do all motherboards use dividers?"
No. In more modern times there have been trends that have swayed us away from a clocked architecture towards an unclocked architecture. This means that there are options for ASYNC operation and BUS locks.

ASYNC is short for asynchronous, which means a common clock is not kept. Usually ASYNC is used to seperate FSB from RAM, so you can have a 166 FSB and still be able to run your RAM at 133.

BUS locks on the other hand do away with dividers altogether and allow you to independantly adjust your BUSes, meaning you can keep your PCI BUS operating at 33MHz and still happily overclock your FSB to 200MHz and beyond. In Athlon circles this option is most prevalent on nForce chipset based motherboards.

"How do I determine the overclockability of my CPU?"
For both Intel and AMD chips, there are "overclocking databases" setup all over the internet where you can compare. You compare using chip manufacturer, chip model/speed, and chip batch.

Please remember that these databases are trust based, so someone with malicious intent could falsify his recordings. Look carefully for a common overclocking speed for your CPU's batch.

As an example, a common overclocking speed for the popular Duron AKCA core was 1050MHz. A common overclocking speed for the popular TBird AXIA core is 1400MHz.

Click Here to go onto a common and popular CPU database.

"Is there any software I can use from within my OS to overclock my CPU?"
SoftFSB
cpuFSB

"Ok, I'm a little freaked by all of this. I just spent x dollars on the latest xyz stuff and I'm worried I'll damage it as it is my first overclock. What can I do?"
This is a perfectly understandable situation, you've just got yourself some new toys to play with and you dont want to blow them up.

If you are lacking in confidence, try to find an older computer, you'll have an easier time if it is an ATX standard computer, as AT standard computers require a lot more effort. Look around at your local computer shops, or try trademe. The newer the better though, as it will relate a lot closer to your main rig if/when you do overclock it.

If you do pickup some old gear, you can use it to experiment with a variety of things, maybe even an open source OS such as linux or *BSD. You can also practise changing and upgrading components, and eventually have a cheap, respectable rig. Once you are ready to have a go at your main rig, you can choose to keep your secondary rig, or you can sell it, or be a kind person and give it to a family member as an internet/email box.

Most of all, have fun with it, learning computers (and overclocking) should never be a tedious process.

RAM/Memory
I strongly recommend this article for information on RAM/Memory.

Videocards


Cooling
Click Here to go over to the OCNZ Cooling FAQ

Recommended Articles:Recommended Reading:

The Book of Overclocking
PC Overclocking, Optimization, & Tuning
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Old 24-10-2003, 08:02 PM   #5
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Old 26-10-2007, 02:35 PM   #6
BigBoss22
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Ok cool, i understand your guide except for one thing, you say to increase the multiplier and fsb speed but you dont say how you do this?
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Old 26-10-2007, 02:43 PM   #7
imdying
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Originally Posted by BigBoss22 View Post
Ok cool, i understand your guide except for one thing, you say to increase the multiplier and fsb speed but you dont say how you do this?
How did you get your 6600 to 3.0ghz then?
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Sort you spelling and grammer out.
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Old 27-10-2007, 03:52 PM   #8
ColinPowell
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And this is not the place to ask questions. Please start a thread in the correct forums - try 'overclocking' or 'newbies'.
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